certain sectors of the Indian economy is a necessary but insufficient
condition for the elimination of extreme poverty.
poorest benefit from this growth, and also contribute to it, the
expansion and improvement of the microfinance sector should be a
national priority. Studies suggest that the impact of microfinance on
the poorest is greater than on the poor, and yet another that
non-participating members of communities where microfinance operates
experience socio-economic gains — suggesting strong spillover
effects. Moreover, well-managed microfinance institutions (MFIs) have
shown a capacity to wean themselves off of subsidies and become
sustainable within a few years.
it is clearly no panacea. Microfinance does not directly address some
structural problems facing Indian society and the economy, and it is
not yet as efficient as it will be when economies of scale are
realized and a more supportive policy environment is created.
inflexible, and savings and insurance services that the poor also
need are not widely available due to regulatory barriers.
the few market-based, scalable anti-poverty solutions that is in
place in India today, and the argument to scale it up to meet the
overwhelming need is compelling. According to Sa-Dhan, the overall
outreach is 6.5 million families and the sector-wide loan portfolio
is Rs 2,500 crore.
10% of the estimated demand. Importantly, new initiatives are
expanding this success story to the some of the country’s poorest
regions, such as eastern and central Uttar Pradesh.
governments have an important role to play in ensuring the growth and
improvement of microfinance. First and foremost, the market should be
left to set interest rates, not the state. Ensuring transparency and
full disclosure of rates including fees is something the government
should ensure, and something that new technologies as well as
reporting and data standards are already enabling.
regulators should set clear criteria for allowing MFIs to mobilize
savings for on-lending to the poor; this would allow for a large
measure of financial independence amongst well-managed MFIs. Each
Indian state could consider forming a multi-party working group to
meet with microfinance leaders and have a dialogue with them about
how the policy environment could be made more supportive and to clear
There is an opportunity to make a real dent in
hard-core poverty through microfinance. By unleashing the
entrepreneurial talent of the poor, we will slowly but surely
transform India in ways we can only begin to imagine today.
What could be the meaning of
the word panacea
in the passage?
to all problems Sustainable
Why, according to the author,
should microfinance be scaled up in India?
high. b. It is a market-based anti-poverty solution.
1 and 2.
E. : 1, 2 and 3.
Why are saving products not
products. B. Due
to regulatory restrictions.
not available. D. Saving products are not available.
Why does the author talk about
talent of poor’
in the concluding paragraph?
is encouraged by microfinance.
an alternate to microfinance.
discouraged by microfinance. D. None of these
Which of the following is not
a challenge faced by microfinance in India?
when economy of scale is achieved.
environment. D. Structural problems of Indian society.
Which of the following is
correct with regard to microfinance?
demand. B. The
demand is more than supply.
balanced. d.None of these can be inferred from passage.
What is the author’s view
about interest rates?
them. B.There should be transparency with regard to them.
them. D. Both 1 and 2. E. Both
2 and 3.
Which of the following will
the author agree to?
solve the problem of poverty.
enough to solve the problem of poverty.
aggravates the problem of poverty. D. None of these
it came to promoting its new video-game console, the Wii, in America,
Nintendo recruited a handful of carefully chosen suburban mothers in
the hope that they would spread the word among their friends that the
Wii was a gaming console the whole family could enjoy together.
Nintendo thus became the latest company to use “word-of-mouth”
marketing. Nestlé, Sony and Philips have all launched similar
campaigns in recent months to promote everything from bottled water
to electric toothbrushes. As the power of traditional advertising
declines, what was once an experimental marketing approach is
becoming more popular.
After all, no form of advertising
carries as much weight as an endorsement from a friend. “Amway and
Tupperware know you can blend the social and economic to business
advantage,” says Walter Carl, a marketing guru at Northeastern
University. The difference now, he says, is that the internet can
magnify the effect of such endorsements.
The difficulty for
marketers is creating the right kind of buzz and learning to control
it. Negative views spread just as quickly as positive ones, so if a
product has flaws, people will soon find out. And Peter Kim of
Forrester, a consultancy, points out that when Microsoft sent laptops
loaded with its new Windows Vista software to influential bloggers in
an effort to get them to write about it, the resulting online
discussion ignored Vista and focused instead on the morality of
accepting gifts and the ethics of word-of-mouth marketing. Bad buzz,
a controversial company based in Boston that is one of the leading
exponents of word-of-mouth marketing, operates a network of volunteer
“agents” who receive free samples of products in the post. They
talk to their friends about them and send back their thoughts. In
return, they receive rewards through a points program—an
arrangement they are supposed to make clear. This allows a firm to
create buzz around a product and to see what kind of word-of-mouth
response it generates, which can be useful for subsequent product
development and marketing. Last week BzzAgent launched its service in
Britain. Dave Balter, BzzAgent’s founder, thinks word-of-mouth
marketing will become a multi-billion dollar industry. No doubt he
tells that to everyone he meets.
What is the experimental
approach being discussed in the first paragraph?
Selling of video-game consoles, bottled water and electric
toothbrushes c. Traditional Advertising d. None of these
What is the tone of the
Biased c. Celebratory d. Critical
What can we infer from Walter
products where word of mouth marketing could be used.
consumers who appreciated word of mouth marketing.
companies who use word of mouth marketing.
What is the effect of internet
on Word-of-mouth marketing?
internet. B. It
is encouraged by the internet.
issues of this marketing technique.
According to the passage, in
what order did different companies use word of mouth marketing?
and Philips. b.
Nintendo after Sony, Nestle and Philips.
Philips: all at the same time. d. None of these
According to Peter Kim, what
happened to Microsoft’s marketing campaign for Vista?
with some hiccups c.It
failed d.None of
Where does BzzAgent operate?
and UK c.USA
only d. None of these
What is the author most likely
to agree to in the following?
to state that word-of-mouth marketing is useful.
state that word-of-mouth marketing is useful.
mouth marketing is a failed technique.
people power and discretion, and whether they are grand viziers or
border guards, some will use their position to enrich themselves. The
problem can be big enough to hold back a country’s development. One
study has shown that bribes account for 8% of the total cost of
running a business in Uganda. Another found that corruption boosted
the price of hospital supplies in Buenos Aires by 15%. Paul
Wolfowitz, the head of the World Bank, is devoting special efforts
during his presidency there to a drive against corruption.
most people in the world, though, the worry is not that corruption
may slow down their country’s GDP growth. It is that their
daily lives are pervaded by endless hassles, big and small. And for
all the evidence that some cultures suffer endemic corruption while
others are relatively clean, attitudes towards corruption, and even
the language describing bribery, is remarkably similar around the
a testament to most people’s basic decency, bribe-takers and
bribe-payers have developed an elaborate theatre of dissimulation.
This is not just to avoid detection. Even in countries where
corruption is so common as to be unremarkable and unprosecutable—and
even when the transaction happens far from snooping eyes—a bribe is
almost always dressed up as some other kind of exchange. Though most
of the world is plagued by corruption, even serial offenders try to
manifestation of this is linguistic. Surprisingly few people say:
“You are going to have to pay me if you want to get that done.”
Instead, they use a wide variety of euphemisms. One type is
quasi-official terminology. The first bribe paid by your
correspondent, in Ukraine in 1998, went to two policemen so they
would let him board a train leaving the country. On the train into
Ukraine, the customs officer had absconded with a form that is needed
again later to leave the country. The policemen at the station kindly
explained that there was a shtraf,
a “fine” that could be paid instead of producing the document.
The policemen let him off with the minimum shtraf of
50 hryvnia ($25).
term widely used at border crossings is “expediting fee”. For a
euphemism it is surprisingly accurate: paying it will keep your bags,
and perhaps your contraband, from being dumped onto a floor and
sifted through at a leisurely pace. (A related term, used in India,
is “speed money”: paying it can get essential business permits
issued considerably faster.)
Lewis, an analyst with the Economist Intelligence Unit (a sister
company to The
describes the quasi-business terminology typically used for bribery
in the post-communist privatisations of eastern Europe. A mostly
useless but well-connected insider at the company is hired as a
“consultant”. The consultant is paid a large official “fee”,
nominally for his industry expertise, on the understanding that he
will cut in the minister and other decision-makers.
second type of euphemism dresses up a dodgy payment as a friendly
favour done by the bribe-payer. There is plenty of creative scope.
Nigerian policemen are known to ask for “a little something for the
weekend”. A North African term is “un
a little gift. Mexican traffic police will suggest that you buy them
a soft drink, as will Angolan and Mozambican petty officials, who
call it a gazoso in
Portuguese. A businessman in Iraq told Reuters that although
corruption there is quite overt, officials still insist on being
given a “good coffee”.
meaning can help soothe the awkwardness of bribe-paying. Baksheesh,
originally a Persian word now found in many countries of the Middle
East, can mean “tip”, “alms” and “bribe”.
Swahili-speakers can take advantage of another ambiguous term. In
Kenya a machine-gun-wielding guard suggested to a terrified Canadian
aid worker: “Perhaps you would like to discuss this over tea?”
The young Canadian was relieved: the difficulty could be resolved
with some chai,
which means both “tea” and “bribe”.
lives in several centuries at the same time. Somehow we manage to
and regress simultaneously. As a nation we age by pushing
outward from the
middle–adding a few centuries on either end of
the extraordinary CV. We greaten
like the maturing head of a
hammerhead shark with eyes looking in diametrically
I don’t mean to put a simplistic value judgment on
this peculiar form of “progress” by
suggesting that Modern is
Good and Traditional is Bad–or vice versa. What’s hard
reconcile oneself to, both personally and politically, is the
schizophrenic nature of
it. That applies not
just to the ancient/modern
conundrum but to the utter illogic of
what appears to
be the current national enterprise. In the lane behind my
every night I walk past road gangs of emaciated laborers
digging a trench to lay
fiber-optic cables to
speed up our digital revolution. In the bitter winter
work by the light of a few candles.
It’s as though
the people of India have been rounded up and loaded onto two
of trucks (a huge big one and a tiny little one) that have set off
opposite directions. The tiny convoy is on its way
to a glittering destination
somewhere near the top of the world.
The other convoy just melts into the darkness
and disappears. A
cursory survey that tallies the caste, class and religion of who
to be on which convoy would make a good Lazy Person’s concise Guide
Why does the author calls
‘progress’ as peculiar?
Because Modern is good and
traditional is bad.
Because of its unbalanced
Because it differs politically
and personally. D. None of these.
What do you infer from the
sentence -‘For some of us, life in ……but emotionally and
A person has one leg in one
truck and the other in the second truck.
A person meets with an accident.
The nation is moving in two
The nation is suffering from
many road accidents
How does the author feel about
‘Globalisation’ in India?
Curious b.Hopeless c.Enthusiastic d.
What does the sentence “We
greaten like the maturing head of a hammerhead shark with eyes
looking in diametrically opposite directions.’ implies?
Indian people are barbaric in
We are progressing in some
areas and regressing in the others.
India has a diverse culture.
Some people are modern while the
others are traditional in approach.
What do you infer from the
sentence in context of the passage-‘India lives in several centuries
at the same time.’?
We are progressing in some
areas and regressing in the others.
People from different countries
are living in India.
India has a diverse culture.
Some people are modern while the
others are traditional in approach.
What do you infer from the
following lines-‘In the lane behind my house, every night I walk
past road gangs of emaciated labourers digging a trench to lay
fiber-optic cables to speed up our digital revolution? In the bitter
winter cold, they work by the light of a few candles.’?
India has a balanced mixture of
both traditional and modern people.
Progress is unbalanced.
Digital revolution is very
important for our economic growth.
There is shortage of electricity
What does the phrase “cultural
People from one culture do not
respect people from the other cultures.
Disrespect of British towards
White people’s definition for
us. D. Ill-treatment at hands of British
Why does the response towards
‘Globalisation in India’ differs in different parts of India?
Due to different literacy
levels. B. Due to religious diversity in India.
It will not benefit all
sections of the society.
It may not have all the answers
to India’s current problems.
massive subsidization of its steel industry is having consequences
that are truly global. By expanding its steel industry by Government
fiat, rather than in response to the demands of the market, China has
skewed the entire world market in steel and in the inputs used to
make steel. In doing so, it has directly injured both foreign steel
producers and steel consuming industries in other countries.
explosive growth between 2000 and the present required massive
amounts of steel, and indeed, during much of this period China was
the world’s leading steel importer. By building up its steel industry
to artificial levels, though, China deprived steel producers in other
countries of valuable sales. This is significant, because steel is a
highly cyclical industry.
Not surprisingly, the rapid
expansion of steel making capacity in China led first to the
replacement of imports, and then to a boom in exports. In product
line after product line, Chinese exports have flooded world markets,
driving down prices.
The world in many ways constitutes an
integrated market for steel. Through a dramatic expansion in capacity
fueled largely by subsidies and Government-directed lending, the
Chinese steel industry is destabilizing that market. Foreign steel
producers are not the only ones harmed by the subsidized expansion of
the Chinese steel industry. Foreign steel consumers have also been
injured. The expansion of the steel industry is only part of the
Chinese Government’s plan for the development of the Chinese economy.
The Chinese Government is also encouraging the development of
manufacturing industries that use steel.
products that are steel-intensive, such as automotive parts and
appliances, are seeing increasing competition from Chinese producers
who have access to subsidized domestic steel. Subsidized steel is
going to manufacture components in China that ultimately end up in
the United States and replace American steel. Indeed, American
consumers report that they can import finished parts cheaper from
China than they can buy the steel here. At the same time that U.S.
steel producers are seeing increased imports caused, directly and
indirectly, by increased Chinese production, we are also seeing many
of our domestic customers move production to China, or go out of
Which of the options most closely describes ‘by Government fiat’?a)
In response to Government order
b) Before the Chinese Government ordered
c) With the help of
Chinese owned fiat company d) In keeping with Government
2) How have US steel consumers gotten affected as a
result of Chinese steel?
a) Import from China has become very easy
and hence there is no need to manufacture the finished product in the
b) Subsidized Chinese steel which is not of very high quality
is affecting quality of finished product
c) Demand for steel is
less than supply from China, leading smaller US steel consumers to
shut down businessd)
Raw material in America costs more than the finished product in China
and hence production is unfeasible
What does “dramatic expansion” indicate?a)
Artificial expansion b)
Noticeable expansion c) Unstable expansion
4) What is the main motive behind expansion of steel
industry in China?
a) Increased returns as a result of higher
market share globallyb)
Replacing imports and growth of Chinese economy
Driving out foreign producers and consumers from the world market of
d) Make a global impact in all industries, beginning with
response to recent rise in gas prices, we are once again hearing
calls for the government to “do something” to force prices
lower. But no matter what the price of gasoline is, such calls are
wrong. All market fluctuations in the price of gasoline, up or down,
are a good thing and none of the government’s business.
the realm of business, a higher price means that firms will only
purchase oil or gasoline to the extent that they can make profitable
use of it at those prices. An efficient airline will still be able to
offer low prices while using high-priced jet fuel; a less efficient
airline may not be able to. A company in China or India that uses oil
to run highly efficient factories can make profitable use of oil at
$70 a barrel; their laggard competitors may not be able to.
is no moral or economic justification for any politician or consumer
to declare market prices “too high,” and to use the
government to force lower prices. Doing so violates both the rights
of gasoline producers and their productive customers to set voluntary
prices and thus causes destructive shortages.
government is right in taking action if an oil company provably
threatens or harms a person’s property. But to impose huge costs on
oil companies and their customers in the name of preserving untouched
nature is unconscionable. What should the government do about
gasoline prices? Get its hands out of the market and keep them off.
1)How do high oil prices affect companies?a)
Efficient companies can make profitable use of these prices
Inefficient factories are provided subsidies by the government
It provides stability for the fluctuating market
d) There is a
marginal effect on profits
2) What is the meaning of
a) Complicate situations for one’s benefitb)
Move or respond slowly c)
Respond fast in crucial circumstances
d) Increase efficiency in
short period of time
3) What is the conflict regarding market
fluctuation in prices?
a) Oil prices are being lowered forcefully
b) Companies are making no effort to stabilize
Importance of government intervention is negligible, contrary to
Market is suffering with government’s future plans of control
Why should the government not intervene in lowering prices?
Market prices are governed by monopolistic competitionb)
Rights of producers will be violated with the intervention
Massive costs to companies are not adv
during financial crisis
d) Preserving oil for future generations
should be in the hands of organizations
development is the pursuit of developing, honing and mastering the
skills that help us become the best that we can, with all that we
have. It is the reaching for, and the realizing of, our full
potential as human beings. We all want to live full, productive lives
but, sometimes we just don’t know where to begin. There is so much
information ‘out there’ that it can be overwhelming and hard to sort.
Depending on the problem, what seems to work for one person, may not
necessarily work for everyone. There are so many different programs,
strategies and techniques that it is hard to choose the right
One thing, however, is certain. If we want to accomplish
anything in life and realize our full potential, we must have some
skills – in this case, life skills. You begin by establishing a firm
foundation. That foundation is “you”. You must know who you
are, what you want, and what you are capable of. You must then
determine which values, goals and principles you will set up to guide
Often, the hardest part in any endeavor is
getting started, however once you do, there is a surprising snowball
effect. You will begin to feel good about what you’re doing and
you’ll want to continue. You will want to keep improving yourself and
you’ll want to become the best that you can be. As you continue on
the journey of personal development you will become aware that there
is so much knowledge and information to be discovered and uncovered
than you ever thought possible; knowledge about yourself, knowledge
about others, knowledge about life and the world around you.
good news is that acquiring Essential Life Skills will not only
contribute to your personal growth and development, it will make you
a more interesting and dynamic individual. What good is all the
financial success in the world if you don’t have self-confidence or
high self-esteem, know who you really are, what you want, or what
you’re doing here? We’ve all witnessed many outwardly successful and
famous people who have not been able to find personal happiness. No
amount of fame or fortune could fill the void they felt inside.
Why are life skills essential for personal growth?
a) It is
important to acquire skills that help one fit into the societyb)
Growth of an individual is incomplete without proper skills and
One can be happy by acquiring life skills, not by measuring
d) These skills highlight the negative aspects of our
2) What can you infer from the term ‘snowball
a) Downward trends such as feeling low about oneself are
observed in peopleb)
to pursue knowledge, and improve oneself
Excess of knowledge can confuse a person
d) Improving life skills
requires tremendous effort and determination
3) Which of the
following best describes the ‘foundation’?
a) Be clear about life
and occurrence of circumstances
b) Be free and explore unseen
dimensions of living lifec)
Discover yourself and your qualities
Master the skills that will help you achieve your goals
What problems can we face in the beginning of personality
a) Abundance of problems makes it difficult to deal
b) Personality has various sides which are difficult to
c) There is no proper channel through which one can
learn about personalityd)
Different methods available to help us may not work effectively for
Kingdom of Spain was created in 1492 with the unification of the
Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of Aragon. For the next three
centuries Spain was the most important colonial power in the world.
It was the most powerful state in Europe and the foremost global
power during the 16th century and the greater part of the 17th
century. Spain established a vast empire in the Americas, stretching
from California to Patagonia, and colonies in the western
Spain’s European wars, however, led to economic
damage, and the latter part of the 17th century saw a gradual decline
of power under an increasingly neglectful and inept Habsburg regime.
The decline culminated in the War of the Spanish Succession, where
Spain’s decline from the position of a leading Western power, to that
of a secondary one, was confirmed, although it remained the leading
The eighteenth century saw a new dynasty, the
Bourbons, which directed considerable effort towards the
institutional renewal of the state, with some success, peaking in a
successful involvement in the American War of Independence.
end of the eighteenth and the start of the nineteenth centuries saw
turmoil unleashed throughout Europe by the French Revolutionary and
Napoleonic Wars, which finally led to a French occupation of much of
the continent, including Spain. This triggered a successful but
devastating war of independence that shattered the country and
created an opening for what would ultimately be the successful
independence of Spain’s mainland American colonies.
a period of growing political instability in the early twentieth
century, in 1936 Spain was plunged into a bloody civil war. The war
ended in a nationalist dictatorship, led by Francisco Franco which
controlled the Spanish government until 1975.
1) What was the
result of Napoleanic wars?
a) A small part of the continent was
occupied by French peopleb)
Spain was occupied by the French
War of independence was unable to yield any positive result
American colonies were destroyed after the war
2) What is the
meaning of the term ‘culminated’?
a) Follow a particular path
Guide or transformc)
Reach the highest point
Introduce on a grand scale
3) What is the summary of the
a) The rise and fall of a national empire
downfall of successive regimes in Spainc)
The history of Spain
Spain in eighteenth century
4) What occurred in the latter
part of 17th century?
a) War of succession confirmed the leading
position of Spain
b) Spain was no longer regarded as the ruling
c) A vast empire was established in Europed)
Power steadily declined under Habsburg regime
economic transformation of India is one of the great business stories
of our time. As stifling government regulations have been lifted,
entrepreneurship has flourished, and the country has become a
high-powered center for information technology and pharmaceuticals.
Indian companies like Infosys and Wipro are powerful global players,
while Western firms like G.E. and I.B.M. now have major research
facilities in India employing thousands. India’s seemingly endless
flow of young, motivated engineers, scientists, and managers offering
developed-world skills at developing-world wages is held to be
putting American jobs at risk, and the country is frequently heralded
as “the next economic superpower.”
But India has run into a
surprising hitch on its way to superpower status: its inexhaustible
supply of workers is becoming exhausted. Although India has one of
the youngest workforces on the planet, the head of Infosys said
recently that there was an “acute shortage of skilled manpower,”
and a study by Hewitt Associates projects that this year salaries for
skilled workers will rise fourteen and a half per cent, a sure sign
that demand for skilled labor is outstripping supply.
How is this
possible in a country that every year produces two and a half million
college graduates and four hundred thousand engineers? Start with the
fact that just ten per cent of Indians get any kind of post-secondary
education, compared with some fifty per cent who do in the U.S.
Moreover, of that ten per cent, the vast majority go to one of
India’s seventeen thousand colleges, many of which are closer to
community colleges than to four-year institutions. India does have
more than three hundred universities, but a recent survey by the
London Times Higher Education Supplement put only two of them among
the top hundred in the world. Many Indian graduates therefore enter
the workforce with a low level of skills. A current study led by
Vivek Wadhwa, of Duke University, has found that if you define
“engineer” by U.S. standards, India produces just a hundred and
seventy thousand engineers a year, not four hundred thousand. Infosys
says that, of 1.3 million applicants for jobs last year, it found
only two per cent acceptable.
There was a time when many
economists believed that post-secondary education didn’t have much
impact on economic growth. The really important educational gains,
they thought, came from giving rudimentary skills to large numbers of
people (which India still needs to do—at least thirty per cent of
the population is illiterate). They believed that, in economic terms,
society got a very low rate of return on its investment in higher
education. But lately that assumption has been overturned, and the
social rate of return on investment in university education in India
has been calculated at an impressive nine or ten per cent. In other
words, every dollar India puts into higher education creates value
for the economy as a whole. Yet India spends roughly three and a half
per cent of its G.D.P. on education, significantly below the
percentage spent by the U.S., even though India’s population is
much younger, and spending on education should be proportionately
The irony of the current situation is that India was once
considered to be overeducated. In the seventies, as its economy
languished, it seemed to be a country with too many engineers and
Ph.D.s working as clerks in government offices. Once the Indian
business climate loosened up, though, that meant companies could tap
a backlog of hundreds of thousands of eager, skilled workers at their
disposal. Unfortunately, the educational system did not adjust to the
new realities. Between 1985 and 1997, the number of teachers in India
actually fell, while the percentage of students enrolled in high
school or college rose more slowly than it did in the rest of the
world. Even as the need for skilled workers was increasing, India was
devoting relatively fewer resources to producing them.
Second World War, the countries that have made successful leaps from
developing to developed status have all poured money, public and
private, into education. South Korea now spends a higher percentage
of its national income on education than nearly any other country in
the world. Taiwan had a system of universal primary education before
its phase of hypergrowth began. And, more recently, Ireland’s
economic boom was spurred, in part, by an opening up and expansion of
primary and secondary schools and increased funding for universities.
Education will be all the more important for India’s well-being;
the earlier generation of so-called Asian Tigers depended heavily on
manufacturing, but India’s focus on services and technology will
require a more skilled and educated workforce.
India has taken
tentative steps to remedy its skills famine—the current government
has made noises about doubling spending on education, and a host of
new colleges and universities have sprung up since the mid-nineties.
But India’s impressive economic performance has made the problem
seem less urgent than it actually is, and allowed the government to
defer difficult choices. (In a country where more than three hundred
million people live on a dollar a day, producing college graduates
can seem like a low priority.) Ultimately, the Indian government has
to pull off a very tough trick, making serious changes at a time when
things seem to be going very well. It needs, in other words, a clear
sense of everything that can still go wrong. The paradox of the
Indian economy today is that the more certain its glowing future
seems to be, the less likely that future becomes
Which of these could you infer
according to the passage?
Developing countries are less as compared to wages in the developed
countries are more as compared to wages in the developed countries
countries are same as wages in the developed countries
What does “American jobs”
in the last line of the first paragraph of the passage imply?
held) by American people
According to the passage, why
India does not have enough skilled labour?
young population is low
colleges are insufficient
and colleges do not match global standards.
What can you infer as the
meaning of ‘stifling’ from the passage?
Liberal Option 3
: Impeding Option
4 : Undemocratic
What is an appropriate title
to the passage?
Economy Option 2 : Higher education in India
4 : Entrepreneurship in India
In the third sentence of the
third paragraph of the passage, the phrase “closer to community
colleges ” is used. What does it imply?
colleges Option 2
: Like community colleges
community colleges Option 4 : None of these
According to the passage, what
is the paradox of the Indian economy today?
The economic progress is
impressive, but the poor (earning one dollar per day) are not
The economic progress is
impressive disallowing the government to take tough decisions.
There is not enough skilled
workforce and the government does not realize this.
Government is not ready to invest
in setting up new universities.
Why are salaries for skilled
hire to lure skilled people to jobs.
ready to pay higher to skilled workers.
growing in India.
skilled workers, while the demand for them is high.
stratosphere—specifically, the lower stratosphere—has, it seems,
been drying out. Water vapour is a greenhouse gas, and the cooling
effect on the Earth’s climate due to this desiccation may account for
a fair bit of the slowdown in the rise of global temperatures seen
over the past ten years. These are the somewhat surprising
conclusions of a paper by
Susan Solomon of America’s National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and her colleagues,
which was published online by Science on
January 28th. Whether the trend will continue, stop or reverse
itself, though, is at present unknown.
stratosphere sits on top of the troposphere, the lowest, densest
layer of the atmosphere. The boundary between the two, the
tropopause, is about 18km above your head, if you are in the tropics,
and a few kilometres lower if you are at higher latitudes (or up a
mountain). The tropopause separates a rowdy below from a sedate
above. In the troposphere, the air at higher altitudes is in general
cooler than the air below it, an unstable situation in which warm and
often moist air below is endlessly buoying up into cooler air above.
The resultant commotion creates clouds, storms and much of the rest
of the world’s weather. In the stratosphere, the air gets warmer at
higher altitudes, which provides stability
stratosphere—which extends up to about 55km, where the mesosphere
begins—is made even less weather-prone by the absence of water
vapour, and thus of the clouds and precipitation to which it leads.
This is because the top of the troposphere is normally very cold,
causing ascending water vapour to freeze into ice crystals that drift
and fall, rather than continuing up into the stratosphere.
little water manages to get past this cold trap. But as Dr Solomon
and her colleagues note, satellite measurements show that rather less
has been doing so over the past ten years than was the case
previously. Plugging the changes in water vapour into a climate model
that looks at the way different substances absorb and emit infrared
radiation, they conclude that between 2000 and 2009 a drop in
stratospheric water vapour of less than one part per million slowed
the rate of warming at the Earth’s surface by about 25%.
a small change in stratospheric water vapour can have such a large
effect precisely because the stratosphere is already dry. It is the
relative change in the amount of a greenhouse gas, not its absolute
level, which determines how much warming it can produce, and this
change was about 10% of the total.
comparison with the greenhouse effect caused by increases in carbon
dioxide, the stratospheric drying is hardly massive. Dr Solomon and
her colleagues peg the 2000-2009 cooling effect at about a third of
the opposite effect they would expect from the carbon dioxide added
over the same decade, and only a bit more than a twentieth of the
warming expected from the rise in carbon dioxide since the industrial
revolution. But it is surprising, nonetheless.
is for the most part only in the tropics that tropospheric air can be
drawn up into the stratosphere; it is also in the tropics that one
finds the most spectacular thunderstorms, and these can reduce the
temperature at the top of the troposphere, deepening the cold trap
that ascending water vapour must pass through and thus impeding its
rise. Over the past decade this stormy effect seems to have been
pronounced, with the coldest parts of the tropical troposphere
getting about a degree colder. But why this should be is not clear.
Sea-surface temperatures, which drive the big tropical storms, have
been high, and during the past few years have seemed to correlate
with increased coldness aloft. At other times, though, they have
seemed to predict a wetter stratosphere.
Solomon cannot say what is driving the change she and her colleagues
have studied, nor how long it will last. It may be one of many
aspects of the climate that flop around, seemingly at random, over
periods of years to decades. Or it might be something driven by a
long-term change, such as the build-up of greenhouse gases (or,
conceivably, layers of sooty smog). Dr Solomon suspects the former,
because of the way the relationship between the stratosphere and the
sea-surface temperature has changed. Patterns of sea-surface
temperature which come and go, rather than absolute levels that
continue to rise, may be the important thing.
said, it is possible that the changes in the stratosphere are linked
to the effects humans are having on the atmosphere at large, and that
the drying may persist in providing a brake on warming. Or it may be,
as others have suggested in the past, that the long-term trend, as
the troposphere warms up, will be to a wetter, more warming lower
stratosphere, too. Whether this is the case depends on physical
subtleties that are currently undecided, but it is not implausible.
If it were true, then the current drying would be more a blip than a
better understanding of matters as diverse as how water vapour
actually gets across the tropopause and how the stratosphere
circulates at the global scale might help sort the question out, and
Dr Solomon’s high profile contribution may help focus researchers on
those problems. Meanwhile, the good news (if further research bears
it out) that the world’s warming has been slowed, at least for a few
years, needs to be leavened with the realisation, yet again, that
there are significant uncertainties in science’s understanding of the
climate — and thus unquantifiable risks ahead.
the atmosphere, starting from the lowermost and going to the topmost?
cited as the main reason affecting global temperatures?
content in the Stratosphere.
vapour of less than one part per million.
infrared radiation by different substances.
troposphere defined as unstable?
Stratosphere, there is too much water vapour in the Troposphere.
directly linked to the Stratosphere, but through the Tropopause which
creates much of the world‘s weather.
between warm and cool air which is unpredictable in nature and can
leads to storms.
atmosphere is very cloudy and can lead to weather related
of water vapour in Stratosphere?
situated too far above the water vapour to reach.
leading to reduced water vapour that get absorbed in the Troposphere.
absorbed by the cloudes in the Troposphere and comes down as rain.
up, it has to pass through below freezing temperatures and turns into
years ago, on the evening of August 14, 1947, a few hours before
Britain’s Indian Empire was formally divided into the nation-states
of India and Pakistan, Lord Louis Mountbatten and his wife, Edwina,
sat down in the viceregal mansion in New Delhi to watch the latest
Bob Hope movie, “My Favorite Brunette.” Large parts of the
subcontinent were descending into chaos, as the implications of
partitioning the Indian Empire along religious lines became clear to
the millions of Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs caught on the wrong side
of the border. In the next few months, some twelve million people
would be uprooted and as many as a million murdered. But on that
night in mid-August the bloodbath—and the fuller consequences of
hasty imperial retreat—still lay in the future, and the
Mountbattens probably felt they had earned their evening’s
Mountbatten, the last viceroy of India, had arrived
in New Delhi in March, 1947, charged with an almost impossible task.
Irrevocably enfeebled by the Second World War, the British belatedly
realized that they had to leave the subcontinent, which had spiralled
out of their control through the nineteen-forties. But plans for
brisk disengagement ignored messy realities on the ground.
Mountbatten had a clear remit to transfer power to the Indians within
fifteen months. Leaving India to God, or anarchy, as Mohandas Gandhi,
the foremost Indian leader, exhorted, wasn’t a political option,
however tempting. Mountbatten had to work hard to figure out how and
to whom power was to be transferred.
The dominant political party,
the Congress Party, took inspiration from Gandhi in claiming to be a
secular organization, representing all four hundred million Indians.
But many Muslim politicians saw it as a party of upper-caste Hindus
and demanded a separate homeland for their hundred million
co-religionists, who were intermingled with non-Muslim populations
across the subcontinent’s villages, towns, and cities. Eventually,
as in Palestine, the British saw partition along religious lines as
the quickest way to the exit.
But sectarian riots in Punjab and
Bengal dimmed hopes for a quick and dignified British withdrawal, and
boded ill for India’s assumption of power. Not surprisingly, there
were some notable absences at the Independence Day celebrations in
New Delhi on August 15th. Gandhi, denouncing freedom from imperial
rule as a “wooden loaf,” had remained in Calcutta, trying, with
the force of his moral authority, to stop Hindus and Muslims from
killing each other. His great rival Mohammed Ali Jinnah, who had
fought bitterly for a separate homeland for Indian Muslims, was in
Karachi, trying to hold together the precarious nation-state of
Nevertheless, the significance of the occasion was not
lost on many. While the Mountbattens were sitting down to their Bob
Hope movie, India’s constituent assembly was convening in New
Delhi. The moment demanded grandiloquence, and Jawaharlal Nehru,
Gandhi’s closest disciple and soon to be India’s first Prime
Minister, provided it. “Long years ago, we made a tryst with
destiny,” he said. “At the stroke of the midnight hour, while the
world sleeps, India will awaken to life and freedom. A moment comes,
which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to
the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long
suppressed, finds utterance.”
Posterity has enshrined this
speech, as Nehru clearly intended. But today his quaint phrase “tryst
with destiny” resonates ominously, so enduring have been the
political and psychological scars of partition. The souls of the two
new nation-states immediately found utterance in brutal enmity. In
Punjab, armed vigilante groups, organized along religious lines and
incited by local politicians, murdered countless people, abducting
and raping thousands of women. Soon, India and Pakistan were fighting
a war—the first of three—over the disputed territory of Kashmir.
Gandhi, reduced to despair by the seemingly endless cycle of
retaliatory mass murders and displacement, was shot dead in January,
1948, by a Hindu extremist who believed that the father of the Indian
nation was too soft on Muslims. Jinnah, racked with tuberculosis and
overwork, died a few months later, his dream of a secular Pakistan
apparently buried with him.
Many of the seeds of postcolonial
disorder in South Asia were sown much earlier, in two centuries of
direct and indirect British rule, but, as book after book has
demonstrated, nothing in the complex tragedy of partition was
inevitable. In “Indian Summer” (Henry Holt; $30), Alex von
Tunzelmann pays particular attention to how negotiations were shaped
by an interplay of personalities. Von Tunzelmann goes on a bit too
much about the Mountbattens’ open marriage and their connections to
various British royals, toffs, and fops, but her account, unlike
those of some of her fellow British historians, isn’t filtered by
nostalgia. She summarizes bluntly the economic record of the British
overlords, who, though never as rapacious and destructive as the
Belgians in the Congo, damaged agriculture and retarded industrial
growth in India through a blind faith in the “invisible hand”
that supposedly regulated markets. Von Tunzelmann echoes Edmund
Burke’s denunciation of the East India Company when she terms the
empire’s corporate forerunner a “beast” whose “only object
was money”; and she reminds readers that, in 1877, the year that
Queen Victoria officially became Empress of India, a famine in the
south killed five million people even as the Queen’s viceroy
remained adamant that famine relief was a misguided
Politically, too, British rule in India was deeply
conservative, limiting Indian access to higher education, industry,
and the civil service. Writing in the New York Tribune in the
mid-nineteenth century, Karl Marx predicted that British colonials
would prove to be the “unconscious tool” of a “social
revolution” in a subcontinent stagnating under “Oriental
despotism.” As it turned out, the British, while restricting an
educated middle class, empowered a multitude of petty Oriental
despots. (In 1947, there were five hundred and sixty-five of these
feudatories, often called maharajas, running states as large as
Belgium and as small as Central Park.)
From the passage, what can we
conclude about the view of the author about Lord Mountbatten?
2 : Sarcastic Option
3 : Neutral Option 4 : Speculative
What is the author likely to
agree to as the reason for the chaos in the sub-continent in 1947?
left the sub-continent in haste.
Muslims could not live in peace.
Mountbatten was watching a movie on 14th August 1947.
What could possibly
“grandiloquence” mean as inferred from the context in
which it has been used in the passage?
3 : Lofty speech Option
4 : Destiny
What is the author primarily
talking about in the article?
association with India. Option 2 : Nehru’s speech
4 : The aftermath of the partition.
In the view of the author,
What does the Nehru’s phrase “tryst with destiny”
Independence Option 2 : An inspirational quote
assassination 4 :
A symbol of the ills of the partition
The author persists on talking
about the ” Bob Hope movie” in the article. Why?
classic of 1947
partition of the sub-continent.
the apathy of the Britishers towards the sub-continent
What does the author imply
about the future of the Pakistan?
country. Option 2
: It becomes unsecular.
unprosperous. Option 4 : It becomes a rogue state.
Why was Gandhi assassinated?
favouring the Muslims.
he was partial to the Muslims.
violence after partition. Option 4 : None of these
Iron Age Experimental Centre at Lejre, about 40 km west of
Copenhagen, serves as a museum, a classroom and a place to get away
from it all. How did people live during the Iron Age? How did they
support themselves? What did they eat and how did they cultivate the
land? These and a myriad of other questions prodded the pioneers of
the Lejre experiment. Living in the open and working 10 hours a day,
volunteers from all over Scandinavia led by 30 experts, built the
first village in the ancient encampment in a matter of months. The
house walls were of clay, the roofs of hay – all based on original
designs. Then came the second stage – getting back to the basics of
living. Families were invited to stay in the ‘prehistoric village’
for a week or two at a time and rough it Iron Age-style. Initially,
this experiment proved none too easy for modern Danes accustomed to
central heating, but it convinced the centre that there was something
to the Lejre project. Little by little, the modern Iron Agers learnt
that their huts were, after all, habitable. The problems were
numerous – smoke belching out from the rough-and-ready fireplaces
into the rooms and so on. These problems, however, have led to some
discoveries: domed smoke ovens made of clay, for example, give out
more heat and consume less fuel than an open fire, and when correctly
stoked, they are practically smokeless. By contacting other museums,
the Lejre team has been able to reconstruct ancient weaving looms and
pottery kilns. Iron Age dyeing techniques, using local natural
vegetation, have also been revived, as have ancient baking and
main purpose of building the Iron Age experimental center?
village where people can stay for a week or two to get away from
the Iron Age to get a better understanding of the time and people of
discover the differences between a doomed smoke oven and an open fire
to identity the more efficient of the two.
activities of ancient women such as weaving, pottery, dyeing, cooking
the passage what can be inferred to be the centre’s initial outlook
towards the Lejre project?
initiated the project (B) It
eagerly supported it
felt the project was very unique (D) It
was apprehensive about it
meaning of the sentence “Initially, this experiment proved none to
easy for modern Danes accustomed to central heating, but it convinced
the centre that there was something to the Lejre project.”?
though staying in the huts was not easy for the modern people,
the centre saw merit in the simple living within huts compared to
in the huts was quite easy for the modern people and the centre also
saw merit in the sample living within huts compared to expensive
way of living of the Iron Age proved difficult for the people of the
modern age who are used to living in luxury
way of living of the Iron Age proved very easy for the people of the
modern age since it was hot inside the huts, and they were anyway
used to heated rooms.
the title of the passage?
techniques find their way into pre-historic villages
of ancient and modern times
to be living in the 21st century (D) Turning
toxins which can affect children are frighteningly commonplace.
Besides lead, there are other heavy metals such as mercury, which is
found frequently in fish, that are spewed into the air from
coal-fired power plants, says Maureen Swanson, MPA, director of the
Healthy Children Project at the Learning Disabilities Association of
America. Mercury exposure can impair children‘s memory, attention,
and language abilities and interfere with fine motor and visual
spatial skills. A recent study of school districts in Texas showed
significantly higher levels of autism in areas with elevated levels
of mercury in the environment. ―Researchers are finding harmful
effects at lower and lower levels of exposure, says Swanson.
―They‘re now telling us that they don‘t know if there‘s a
level of mercury that‘s safe. Unfortunately, some of these
chemicals make good flame retardants and have been widely used in
everything from upholstery to televisions to children‘s clothing.
Studies have found them in high levels in household dust, as well as
in breast milk. Two categories of these flame retardants have been
banned in Europe and are starting to be banned by different states in
the United States. The number of toxins in our environment that can
affect children may seem overwhelming at times. On at least some
fronts, however, there is progress in making the world a cleaner
place for kids—and just possibly, reducing the number of learning
disabilities and neurological problems.With a number of efforts to
clean up the environment stalled at the federal level, many state
governments are starting to lead the way.And rather than tackle one
chemical at a time, at least eight states are considering plans for
comprehensive chemical reform bills, which would take toxic chemicals
off the market.
other heavy metals such as mercury, which are found frequently in
fish, that are spewed into the air from coal-fired power plants”.
How can this line be worded differently.
another heavy metal which is found frequently in discarded fish
cooked in coal-fired power plants.
mercury which is a heavy metal ejected in the air from power plants
released in the air as industrial waste and which is also a heavy
metal like lead.
industrial waste is another heavy metal like lead, found in fish.
mercury in the children EXEPT
B. Causes attention deficits ordered
D. Impacts ability to learn language
harmful effects at a lower level of exposer “How can this line
be interpreted? A. Lower level of exposure are harmful B. Harmful
effects from exposure are becoming less intense
impact on harmful effect D. Even little
exposure, can cause harm
is an act of homage to the majesty of appetite. So I think we should
arrange to give up our pleasures regularly–our food, our friends,
our lovers–in order to preserve their intensity, and the moment of
coming back to them. For this is the moment that renews and refreshes
both oneself and the thing one loves. Sailors and travelers enjoyed
this once, and so did hunters, I suppose. Part of the weariness of
modern life may be that we live too much on top of each other, and
are entertained and fed too regularly.
both from our food and families, and then we learned to value both.
The men went off hunting, and the dogs went with them; the women and
children waved goodbye. The cave was empty of men for days on end;
nobody ate, or knew what to do. The women crouched by the fire, the
wet smoke in their eyes; the children wailed; everybody was hungry.
Then one night there were shouts and the barking of dogs from the
hills, and the men came back loaded with meat. This was the great
reunion, and everybody gorged themselves silly, and appetite came
into its own; the long-awaited meal became a feast to remember and an
almost sacred celebration of life. Now we go off to the office and
come home in the evenings to cheap chicken and frozen peas. Very
nice, but too much of it, too easy and regular, served up without
effort or wanting. We eat, we are lucky, our faces are shining with
fat, but we don’t know the pleasure of being hungry any more.
music, entertainment, happy snacks, or time spent with one’s
friends–creates a kind of impotence of living by which one can no
longer hear, or taste, or see, or love, or remember. Life is short
and precious, and appetite is one of its guardians, and loss of
appetite is a sort of death. So if we are to enjoy this short life we
should respect the divinity of appetite, and keep it eager and not
too much blunted.
What is the author’s main argument in the passage?
a) The olden
times, when the roles of men and women were clearly divided, were far
more enjoyable than the present time
b) There is not enough effort
required anymore to obtain food and hence the pleasure derived is not
c) People who don’t have enough to eat enjoy life much
more than those who have plentifuld)
We should deny ourselves pleasures once in a while in order to whet
our desires and feel more alive
What are the benefits of fasting?
a) It is an act against the
drawbacks of appetiteb)
It brings joy in eating, and one learns to appreciate food
It is the method to understand how civilization evolved
d) It is a
punishment for the greedy and unkind
3) What commonality has
been highlighted between the sailors and hunters?
a) Neither were
fed nor entertained regularly
b) They renew and refresh themselves
They were regularly separated from their loved ones and things they
The roles of men and women were clearly divided for both professions
‘The long-awaited meal became a feast to remember and an almost
sacred celebration of life’, what does this line imply?
so many days of being hungry, the cave men and women felt alive once
again after eating the foodb)
People respected and were thankful for getting food after days of
being hungry and also of being united with their loved ones
Cave men and women ate and celebrated together with the entire
community making the feast really enjoyable
d) Cave men and women
enjoyed themselves in the feast and performed a ceremony to thank the
Gods for their safe return back home
THE end of the 19th century, India’s maharajahs discovered a Parisian
designer called Louis Vuitton and flooded his small factory with
orders for custom-made Rolls-Royce interiors, leather picnic hampers
and modish polo-club bags. But after independence, when India’s
princes lost much of their wealth, the orders dried up. Then in
2002 LVMH, the world’s largest luxury-goods group, made a
triumphant return to India, opening a boutique in Delhi and another
in Mumbai in 2004. Its target was the new breed of maharajah produced
by India’s liberalised economy: flush, flash, and growing in number.
purveyors of opulence followed, from Chanel to Bulgari. In recent
months a multitude of swanky brands have announced plans to set up
shop in India, including Dolce & Gabbana, Hermès, Jimmy Choo and
Gucci. And Indian women will soon be invited to spend over $100 on
bras made by La Perla, an Italian lingerie firm. Only a tiny
fraction, of course, will do so. But it is India’s future prospects
that have excited the luxury behemoths.
has fewer than 100,000 dollar millionaires among its one billion-plus
population, according to American Express, a financial-services firm.
It predicts that this number will grow by 12.8% a year for the next
three years. The longer-term ascendance of India’s middle class,
meanwhile, has been charted by the McKinsey Global Institute, which
predicts that average incomes will have tripled by 2025, lifting
nearly 300m Indians out of poverty and causing the middle class to
grow more than tenfold, to 583m.
for all kinds of consumer products is about to surge, in short. And
although restrictions on foreign investment prevent retail giants
such as Wal-Mart and Tesco from entering India directly, different
rules apply to companies that sell their own products under a single
brand, as luxury-goods firms tend to. Since January 2006 they have
been allowed to take up to 51% in Indian joint ventures. India is
also an attractive market for luxury goods because, unlike China, it
does not have a flourishing counterfeit industry. Credit is becoming
more easily available. And later this year Vogue,
a fashion magazine, will launch an Indian edition.
to growth remain, however. High import duties make luxury goods
expensive. Rich Indians tend to travel widely and may simply buy
elsewhere. Finding suitable retail space is also proving a headache.
So far most designer boutiques are situated in five star hotels.
things are changing. Later this year Emporio, a new luxury-goods
mall, will open in a prosperous neighborhood in the south of Delhi.
It is likely to be the first of many. Even so, India could remain a
difficult market to crack. Last October the Luxury Marketing Council,
an international organization of 675 luxury-goods firms, opened its
India chapter. Its boss, Devyani Raman, described India’s
luxury-goods market as “a cupboard full of beautiful clothes with a
new outfit arriving every day—it could start to look messy without
the right care”. This, she said, included everything from teaching
shop assistants appropriate manners to instilling in the Indian
public a proper understanding of the concept of luxury. “How do you
educate them”, she asked, “about the difference between a
designer bag that costs $400 and a much cheaper leather bag that
functions perfectly well?”
Who are the ‘new breed of
their wealth in 2004.
rich people which emerged in India post liberalisation.
What is the author most likely
to agree to as the reason for the inflow of luxury good groups in
Indian economy leading to bright future prospects.
fraction of high income groups in India. Option 4 : None of these
Why do different rules apply
to Wal-Mart and luxury good firms?
luxury goods while it doesn’t encourage Wal-Mart.
market for luxury goods.
rules for retail firms and those that sell their own product.
flourishing counterfeit industry.
What does Devyani Raman’s
an important luxury item and should be taken care of.
market is becoming disorganized.
clothes is very high. Option 4 : None of these
What could be the meaning of
the word modish, as can be inferred from the context it is used in
first line of the passage?
2 : Stylish Option
3 : New Option 4 : Beautiful
What is the author most likely
to agree to?
dollar millionaires in India is very high.
of dollar millionaires in India is low.
dollar millionaires in India match world average.
What is a good estimate of the
middle class population in India today as inferred from the passage?
100,000 Option 3
: 58m Option 4 :
According to the author, which
of these is not a problem for the luxury good firms in the Indian
High import duty. 2 :
Difficulty in finding retail space.
Restriction on firms to enter
Indian markets. Option
4 : All of these
the late 1970s when the technology for sex determination first came
into being, sex selective abortion has unleashed a saga of horror.
Experts are calling it “sanitised barbarism”. Demographic
trends indicate the country is fast heading towards a million female
foetuses aborted each year.Although foetal sex determination and sex
selection is a criminal offence in India, the practice is rampant.
Private clinics with ultrasound machines are doing brisk business.
Everywhere, people are paying to know the sex of an unborn child. And
paying more to abort the female child. The technology has even
reached remote areas through mobile clinics. Dr. Puneet Bedi,
obstetrician and specialist in foetal medicine, says these days he
hardly sees a family with two daughters. People are getting sex
determination done even for the first child, he says.
recent media workshop on the issue of sex selection and female
foeticide brought home the extent of the problem. Held in Agra in
February, the workshop was organised by UNICEF, Business Community
Foundation, and the Centre for Advocacy and Research. Doctors, social
scientists, researchers, activists, bureaucrats, journalists told
their stories of what they were doing to fight the problem. If the
1991 Census showed that two districts had a child sex ratio (number
of girls per thousand boys) less than 850; by 2001 it was 51
districts. Child rights activist Dr. Sabu George says foeticide is
the most extreme form of violence against women. “Today a girl
is several times more likely to be eliminated before birth than die
of various causes in the first year. Nature intended the womb to be a
safe space. Today, doctors have made it the most unsafe space for the
female child,” he says. He believes that doctors must be held
responsible “They have aggressively promoted the misuse of
technology and legitimised foeticide.” Researchers and scholars
use hard-hitting analogy to emphasise the extent of the problem. Dr.
Satish Agnihotri, senior IAS officer and scholar who has done
extensive research on the issue, calls the technology “a weapon
of mass destruction”. Dr. Bedi refers to it as genocide: “More
than 6 million killed in 20 years. That’s the number of Jews killed
in the Holocaust.”
is also one of the most common causes of maternal mortality. The sex
of the foetus can be determined only around 14-16 weeks. This means
most sex selective abortions are late. Abortion after 20 weeks is
illegal in India. Donna Fernandes, Vimochana, a Bangalore-based NGO,
says foeticide is related to a host of other social problems as
varied as privatisation of medical education and dowry. Karnataka has
the highest number of private medical colleges. Healthcare turning
commodity has led to terrifying consequences. Adds Fernandes,
“Wherever green revolution has happened foeticide has increased.
With more landholdings and wealth inheritance dowry has increased.
Daughters are considered an economic liability. Today, people don’t
want their daughters to study higher a more well-educated groom will
demand more dowry.”Ironically, as income levels increase, sex
determination and sex selection is increasing. The most influential
pockets have the worst sex ratios. Take Punjab for instance 793 girls
for every 1,000 boys against the national figure of 927. Or South
Delhi one of the most affluent localities of the Capital 760.
According to Satara-based advocate Varsha Deshpande, small families
have come at the cost of the girl child. In patriarchal States like
Rajasthan where infanticide has existed for centuries, this new
technology has many takers. Meena Sharma, 27, television journalist
from Rajasthan, who did a series of sting operations across four
States last year, says, “Today, people want to pretend they are
modern and that they do not discriminate between a girl and a boy.
Yet, they will not hesitate to quietly go to the next village and get
an ultrasound done.” Sharma was determined to expose the
widespread malpractice. She travelled with pregnant women as “decoys”
across four States and more than 13,000 km to do a series of sting
operations. She says more than 100 doctors of the 140 they met were
ready to do a sex selective abortion, some as late as the seventh
month. “We were shocked at the greed we saw doctors did not even
ask why we wanted to abort, far from dissuading us from doing so,”
she says. What’s the solution? Varsha Deshpande says the PCPNDT Act
(Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Regulation and
Prevention of Misuse) is very well conceived and easy to use. “We
have done 17 sting operations across Maharashtra and got action taken
against more than 25 doctors,” says Varsha. She adds that other
laws for violence against women such as dowry, domestic violence,
rape, put the control in the hands of the police which is biased.
Therefore, even though the law exists, offenders get away. This law
preventing sex determination and sex selection is much easier to use,
Sivadas, Centre for Advocacy and Research, Delhi, agrees that the law
is very well conceived and the need of the hour is legal literacy to
ensure the law is implemented. “The demand and supply debate has
been going on for some time. Doctors say there is a social demand and
they are only fulfilling it. They argue that social attitudes must
change. However, in this case supply fuels demand. Technology will
have to be regulated. Technology in the hands of greedy, vested
interests, cannot be neutral. There is a law to prevent misuse and we
must be able to use it,” she says. CFAR is currently partnering
with local NGOs in six districts of Rajasthan to help ensure
implementation of the law.On the “demand” side, experts
such as Dr. Agnihotri argue that women’s participation in workforce,
having disposable incomes and making a contribution to larger society
will make a difference to how women are seen. Youth icons and role
models such as Sania Mirza are making an impact, he says. Others feel
there needs to be widespread visible contempt and anger in society
against this “genocide” “the kind we saw against the
Nithari killings,” says Dr. Bedi. “Today nobody can say
female foeticide is not their problem.” Time we all did our bit
to help save the girl child. Time’s running out.
Which of the following will
Dr. George agree to?
safe in the mother’s womb as after birth.
safe in the mother’s womb in comparison to after birth.
more safe after birth as compared to the mother’s womb.
What is the solution to the
problem of female foeticide as envisioned by Dr. Bedi?
Effective use of law. B. Mass
Comparison with Nithari
killing. D. Contempt towards doctors.
What is the tone of the
2 : Biased Option 3 : Aggressive Option 4 : Sad
What is Akhila Sivadas’s
opinion on the PCPNDT act?
: The act needs reform.
foeticide. 4 The
act is sound, but needs enforcement.
What does the word sanitised
imply in the first paragraph of the passage?
Free from dirt 4
: None of these
What is the doctors’
explanation for foeticide?
2 : They do it because people demand it.
available and there is no harm using it. Option 4 : None of these
Which of the two people
mentioned in the passage suggest similar solution to the problem?
George Option 2 : Dr. Bedi and Dr. Agnihotri
Bedi Option 4 :
Dr. George and Miss Sivadas
Which “demand” does
the author refer to, in paragraph 5?
doctors. 2 : Demand for high income jobs for women.
icons. Option 4
: Demand for sex determination and abortion.
word euthanasia is
of Greek origin and literally means “a good death.” The American
Heritage Dictionary defines it as “the act of killing a person
painlessly for reasons of mercy.” Such killing can be done through
active means, such as administering a lethal injection, or by passive
means, such as withholding medical care or food and water.
States, there have been numerous cases of active euthanasia in the
news. They usually involve the deliberate killing of ill or
incapacitated persons by relatives or friends who plead that they can
no longer bear to see their loved ones suffer. Although such killings
are a crime, the perpetrators are often dealt with leniently by our
legal system, and the media usually portrays them as compassionate
heroes who take personal risks to save another from unbearable
forms of euthanasia is alarming, but we face a bigger, more insidious
threat from passive forms of euthanasia. Every year, in hospitals and
nursing homes around the country, there are growing numbers of
documented deaths caused by caregivers withholding life-sustaining
care, including food and water, from vulnerable patients who cannot
speak for themselves.
someone directly, for example with a gun or knife, in many cases the
law has put its stamp of approval on causing death by omitting needed
care. Further, many states have “living will” laws designed to
protect those who withhold treatment, and there have been numerous
court rulings which have approved of patients being denied care and
even starved and dehydrated to death.
within the confines of hospitals and nursing homes, they can be kept
hidden from the public. Most euthanasia victims are old or very ill,
so their deaths might be attributed to a cause other than the denial
of care that really killed them. Further, it is often relatives of
the patient who request that care be withheld. In one court case, the
court held that decisions to withhold life-sustaining care may be
made not only by close family members but also by a number of third
parties, and that such decisions need not be reviewed by the judicial
system if there is no disagreement between decision makers and
medical staff. The court went so far as to rule that a nursing home
may not refuse to participate in the fatal withdrawal of food and
water from an incompetent patient!
treatment need not be used when the chance for recovery is poor and
medical intervention would serve only to prolong the dying process.
But to deny customary and reasonable care or to deliberately starve
or dehydrate someone because he or she is very old or very ill should
not be permitted. Most of the cases coming before the courts do not
involve withholding heroic measures from imminently dying people, but
rather they seek approval for denying basic care, such as
administration of food and water, to people who are not elderly or
terminally ill, but who are permanently incapacitated. These people
could be expected to live indefinitely, though in an impaired state,
if they were given food and water and minimal treatment.
another’s life is not worth living. The basic right to life should
not be abridged because someone decides that someone else’s quality
of life is too low. If we base the right to life on quality of life
standards, there is no logical place to draw the line.
must foster more positive attitudes towards people with serious and
incapacitating illnesses and conditions. Despite the ravages of their
diseases, they are still our fellow human beings and deserve our care
and respect. We must also enact positive
legislation that will protect vulnerable people from those who
consider their lives meaningless or too costly to maintain and who
would cause their deaths by withholding life-sustaining care such as
food and water.
be described as
argumentative C. compassionate D.
emphatic E. empathetic
finds starvation and dehydration induced euthanasia is to be “more
considered to be a criminal act
euthanasia is becoming more positive
cannot protest D. the patient has asked to
die with dignity
the best synonym for insidious?
treacherous C. seductive D. apparent E.
by withholding care is
hospitals B. largely confined to the terminally ill
members D. approved by living wills
is the best definition of abridged?
curtailed C. lengthened D. protracted E.
guide, it can be inferred that the author would find euthanasia less
objectionable in cases in which
instructions in a living will not to provide care
and II only D. II and III only E. I, II and
prosecute or defend caregivers
definition of euthanasia will exist
will make the decision to end an individual’s life arbitrary
euthanasia and care omission
longer be able to be rigidly defined
author writes, “Despite the ravages of their diseases, they are
still our fellow human beings and deserve our care and respect.”
The main purpose of this statement is to
argument B. illustrate an example C. gainsay a later statement
justify an earlier statement
phone rings again. It is futile to ignore it anymore; Valerie is
persistent. When Valerie wants something, she will continue to
bedevil me until I acquiesce.
Fair, Bobbie?” she asks in her singsong voice. “When are we
heading out? Only two more days left!”
the State Fair. The boisterous crowds, the insanely long lines and
the impossibility of finding a clean restroom all combine to make
this an event that I dread
Valerie, my best friend since the angst of middle school, the State
Fair is a sign that divine powers really do exist.
Bobbie, where else can you pet a cow, ride a horse, fall ten stories,
see the world’s smallest person and eat fried macaroni and cheese?”
Valerie asks gleefully
food at the State Fair is a gastronomical nightmare on its own. I
once tried a fried pickle at the fair and was sick to my stomach for
hours. And a fried donut hamburger with bacon, cheese AND a greasy
egg? How could that not be deleterious?
seen Valerie for a good month; our schedules are both so hectic. My
hatred of the State Fair becomes inconsequential compared to my
desire to hang with Val.
ignore my anti-fair bias for the umpteenth year.
up at noon,” I say and hang up the phone.
is the best synonym for futile?
preposterous D. ineffective
does it mean to acquiesce?
B. to speak kindly C. to pay attention D. to answer the phone
Which of the following is the best way to rewrite the above sentence
(from paragraph 4) while keeping its original meaning as used in the
Fair. B. I am bored by the State Fair.
Fair. D. I am uncertain about the State Fair.
regards the state fair with
C. jubilance D.
the following might otherwise be included in Bobbie’s description
of foods to be found at the state fair?
apples III. ripe red tomatoes
B. I and III C. II and III D. I, II, and III
hamburger with bacon, cheese AND a greasy egg?”
following grammatical errors are committed in the above sentence from
There is no predicate. III. It is a sentence fragment.
II and III D. I, II, and III
chosen to capitalize all the letters in the word “AND” when
writing about the donut hamburger in paragraph 8?
understood it was a list
the last ingredient
was intentionally written incorrectly
ingredients were on the hamburger
is the best antonym for deleterious?
B. beneficial C. fortuitous D. pathetic
meaning informal language
comparison between two things
literal definition of a word
what does the author’s use of the word umpteenth suggest?
will agree to go to the fair
Fair with Val frequently
has agreed to go with Val
the obscurantist language, bribe-taking culture around the world
often involves the avoidance of physically handing the money from one
person to another. One obvious reason is to avoid detection, which is
why bribes are known as ―envelopes in countries from China to
Greece. But avoidance of a direct hand –over is common even where
there is no chance of detection. There will always be some officials
who will take money right from a bribe-player‘s hands, but most
seem to prefer to find some way to hide the money from view. Rich
Westerners may not think of their societies as plagued by corruption.
But the definition of bribery clearly differs from person to person.
A New Yorker might pity the third-world businessman who must pay
bribes just to keep his shop open. But the same New Yorker would not
think twice about slipping the $50 to sneak into a nice restaurant
without a reservation. Poor people the world over are most infuriated
by the casual corruption of the elites rather than by the underpaid,
―tip -seeking soldier or functionary. Thus there is no single
cultural or social factor that inclines a society towards corruption,
but economic factors play a big part. Most clearly, poverty and
bribery go together. ( For Complete Passage :
What is the author likely to
agree to in the following?
corruptions while others do not.
a society towards corruption.
cultural phenomena. Option
4 : None of these
Which of the following the
author does not identify as linguistic manifestation of corruption?
Asking for a favour. B. Use
of double meanings.
Option 3 : Use of quasi-official
to food item.
What is bribe generally called
Refresco Option 3
: Envelopes 4 :
In summary what does the
passage primarily suggest and provide evidence for?
concealed in some way, both linguistically and in the process.
in developing economies.
unethical practice. 4 : Corruption slows down GDP growth.
What could be the meaning of
the word dissimulation, as can be inferred from the context it is
used in first line of the passage?
2 : Clarity Option 3 : Frankness Option 4 : Insult
What best represents the
author’s attitude towards the rich people in the West?
: Mildly critical 3
: Heavily critical 4 : Mildly appreciative
What is the author most likely
to agree to?
try to hide money taken as bribe.
as bribe primarily to avoid detection.
taken as bribe from view even if detection possibility is low.
What could be the meaning of
the word ‘obscurantist’ as inferred from the passage?
2 : Unclear Option
3 : Nasty Option 4 : Polite
sue-for-anything philosophy was created in the 1960‘s, when judges
and legislators woke up to abuses of racism and other discrimination
that had gone unchecked for centuries. When the bad values of judges
and legislator were finally exposed, they decided to create a neutral
system in which no one in authority would assert any values. Give
people the right to sue for anything, they thought, and then they
can‘t blame us for imposing bad values. Pretty soon, every angry
person or clever lawyer learned how to demand new ―rights . But
these new rights ended up taking away others‘ rights. Trial lawyers
justify ruinous claims like a $78,000,000 verdict in Arkansas against
a nursing home for the neglect of a 93 years old resident on the
basis that it will teach the defendant a lesson not to do it next
time. The money, though, comes from you and me, through rapidly
rising costs and health insurance premiums. The most important
accountability, which the trial lawyers never propose, is to remove
the licenses of inept doctors or nursing homes so that they can‘t
hurt someone else. Trial lawyers, of course, don‘t make much money
if the focus is on better health care, rather than huge verdicts. A
society needs red lights and green lights. The legal system is badly
broken. Yet, few efforts at reform have gotten very far.
for the passage?
America B. Misuse of law has shaken faith of Americans
D. Society suffers with the ever-changing
could not begin to fathom what she was hearing. Event the contractor
appeared flabbergasted. His mouth stayed in a half-open position,
like a guitar waiting for its strings to be tugged. ―Yes. Leave it
, Varun said again. He was speaking to the notion that someone in the
room had asked him to clarify his words. What were the chances that
an Indian burial ground would be found on the bucolic site where
Varun and Anjali had chosen to build their dream home? Why in the
world would Varun not want to have the remains carted away, thought
Anjali. The last thing they needed were Indian poltergeists
meandering around their home while the two of them were trying to
renovate their marriage. Anjali, usually deferential to her husband,
knew that now was the time to make her position heard. She tried to
cajole Varun from the direction he was heading, ―sweetheart, we
don‘t want to build on a site with human remains, it would be
irreverent to the dead . Immediately, she saw contempt in Varun‘s
eyes; it was a subtle reminder of how he often viewed her as
superficial and self-absorbed. ―What would be irreverent , said
Varun, his voice dripping with condescension, ―would be to
desecrate these native graves and move them from their final resting
place. Remember the culture. No, Anjali did not ―remember the
culture . She could care less about the culture. However, varun, the
history professor, was obviously enthralled by the contractor‘s
findings. He had an innate way of understanding other cultures and
other people that amazed Anjali. He did not have that got with her.
But something inside Anjali said this was too much. She believed
wholeheartedly in ghosts and could not imagine a life of them
haunting her, rattling her cupboards, and shaking her floorboards.
Anjali had an unnerving sensation that big problems were ahead.
If Anjali had chosen to be deferential to her husband, what would she
have most likely said?
A)”Good idea.” B)”Don’t be
silly.” C)”I’ll leave you.” D)”I love
2)”She tried to cajole Varun from the
direction he was heading.”
A)She tried to compromise with
B)She tried to force Varun from the direction he was
C)She tried to gently prod Varun from the direction he was
tried to give Varun veiled threats about the direction he was
is the term given to the comparison of the contractor to a
A)An allusion, meaning a figure of speech making casual
reference to a literary figureB)An
analogy, meaning an extended comparison showing the similarities
between two things
denotation, meaning the literal definition of a word
hyperbole, meaning a gross exaggeration
government‘s intention of introducing caste based quotas for the
―Other Backward Classes in centrally funded institutions of
higher learning and the prime minister‘s suggestion to the private
sector to ‗voluntarily go in for reservation‘, has once again
sparked off a debate on the merits and demerits of caste-based
reservations. Unfortunately, the predictable divide between the
votaries of ―social justice on one hand and those advocating
―merit on the other seems to have once again camouflaged the real
issues. It is necessary to take a holistic and non-partisan view of
the issues involved. The hue and cry about ―sacrificing merit is
untenable simply because merit is after all a social construct and it
cannot be determined objectively in a historically unjust and unequal
context. The idea of competitive merit will be worthy of serious
attention only in a broadly egalitarian context. But then, caste is
not the only obstacle in the way of an egalitarian order. After all,
economic conditions, educational opportunities and discrimination on
the basis of gender also contribute to the denial of opportunity to
express one‘s true merit and worth. It is interesting to note that
in the ongoing debate, one side refuses to see the socially
constructed nature of the notion of merit, while the other side
refuses to recognise the multiplicity of the mechanisms of exclusion
with equal vehemence. The idea of caste-based reservations is
justified by the logic of social justice. This implies the conscious
attempt to restructure a given social order in such a way that
individuals belonging to the traditionally and structurally
marginalised social groups get adequate opportunities to actualise
their potential and realise their due share in the resources
available. In any society, particularly in one as diverse and complex
as the Indian society, this is going to be a gigantic exercise and
must not be reduced to just one aspect of state policy. Seen in this
light, caste-based reservation has to work in tandem with other
policies ensuring the elimination of the structures of social
marginalisation and denial of access. It has to be seen as a means of
achieving social justice and not an end in itself. By the same logic
it must be assessed and audited from time to time like any other
social policy and economic strategy.
What is the phrase
‘Sacrificing merit’ referring to?
on basis of merit. c
: Encouraging reservation 4
What do you mean by the word
belief in the equality of all people.
in the inequality of all people.
reservations. Option 4 : Growth
What does the statement- and
not to convert it into a fetish of ‘political correctness’ in
the passage imply?
should not be converted into a political propaganda.
should not be based on caste alone.
should be left to the ruling government. 4 : None of these.
What is the author most likely
to agree with?
is the answer to India’s problems.
reservation is the answer to India’s problems.
bridge the gap between privileged and under-privileged.
What do you mean by the word
2 : Types Option 3 : Demerits Option 4 : People
What do you infer from the
sentence ‘ The idea of caste-based reservations is justified by the
logic of social justice’ ?
will help in providing opportunities to the socially backward
will lead to social equality amongst all classes.
will help backward classes actualise their potential.
Why does caste-bases
reservation system needs to be assessed and audited from time to
advantage to the Nation.
achieves social justice for all.
analysis. Option 4 : None of these.
What is the tone of the
2 : Biased Option 3 : Celebratory Option 4 : Critical
event of the New York cultural season of 1882 was the visit of the
sixty-twoyear-old English philosopher and social commentator Herbert
Spencer. Nowhere did Spencer have a larger or more enthusiastic
following than in the United States, where such works as ―Social
Statics and ―The Data of Ethics were celebrated as powerful
justifications for laissezfaire capitalism. Competition was
preordained; its result was progress; and any institution that stood
in the way of individual liberties was violating the natural order.
―Survival of the fittest —a phrase that Charles Darwin took from
Spencer—made free competition a social as well as a natural law.
Spencer was, arguably, the single most influential systematic thinker
of the nineteenth century, but his influence, compared with that of
Darwin, Marx, or Mill, was short-lived. In 1937, the Harvard
sociologist Talcott Parsons asked, ―Who now reads Spencer?
Seventy years later, the question remains pertinent, even if no one
now reads Talcott Parsons, either. In his day, Spencer was the
greatest of philosophical hedgehogs: his popularity stemmed from the
Page 54 fact that he had one big, easily grasped idea and a mass of
more particular ideas that supposedly flowed from the big one. The
big idea was evolution, but, while Darwin applied it to species
change, speculating about society and culture only with reluctance,
Spencer saw evolution working everywhere. ―This law of organic
progress is the law of all progress, he wrote, ―whether it be in
the development of the Earth, in the development of Life upon its
surface, in the development of Society, of Government, of
Manufactures, of Commerce, of Language, Literature, Science, [or]
Art. Spencer has been tagged as a social Darwinist, but it would be
more correct to think of Darwin as a biological Spencerian. Spencer
was very well known as an evolutionist long before Darwin‘s ―On
the Origin of Species was published, in 1859, and people who had
limited interest in the finches of the Galápagos had a great
interest in whether the state should provide for the poor or whether
it was right to colonize India.
did Spencer have a large enthusiastic following in the United
1 : Because he believed in Darwin’s theory of evolution
2 : Because his work was perceived to justify capitalism
3 : Because he was a English philosopher Option 4 : None of these
of the following will the author agree to?
1 : Mill, Marx and Darwin are more famous than Spencer as of today.
2 : Spencer is more famous than Mill, Marx and Darwin as of today.
3 : Mill, Darwin, Marx and Spencer are equally famous
4 : Mill, Darwin, Marx and Parsons are very famous today today.
does Talcott Parson’s statement, “Who now reads Spencer?”
1 : No one read Spencer in 1937
2 : He is asking a question to his students.
3 : Everyone should read Spencer Option 4 : None of these
could possibly “laissez-faire” mean as inferred from the
context in which it has been used in the passage?
1 : Restricted Option
2 : Not interfered by the government
3 : Unprincipled Option 4 : Uncompetitive
to the author, why was Spencer so popular in the 19th Century?
1 : He supported capitalism
2 : He extended Darwin’s theory of evolution to a lot of things.
3 : He had one broad and simple idea and many specific ideas flowed
4 : He was a friend of Parson’s.
is the author most likely to agree to in the following?
1 : Darwin’s idea of evolution preceded that of Spencer
2 : Both Darwin and Spencer got the idea of the evolution at the same
3 : Spencer’s idea of evolution preceded that of Darwin
4 : Darwin and Spencer worked on totally different models of
must have been the most-likely response/reaction of the New York
audience to Spencer’s talk in 1882?
1 : Vindication Option
2 : Surprise Option
3 : Happiness 4 : Depression
people is the author referring to in the statement: “people who
had limited interest in the finches of the Galápagos”?
1 : People who were not interested in the bird finch
2 : People who were not interested in finches in particular from
3 : People who were not interested in animal species or natural
4 : People who did not have interest in birds.
money has always strongly affected how people do in life in Britain,
with well-heeled family breeding affluent children just as the
offspring of the desperately poor tend to be poor. All that supposed
to have ceased by the end of the Second World War, with the birth of
welfare state designed to meet basic needs and promote social
mobility. But despite devoting much thought and more money to improve
the lot of the poor, governments have failed to boost those at the
bottom of the pile as much as those on top of the pile have boosted
themselves. Although the study found that some of the widest gaps
between social groups have diminished over time (between men and
women on pay, for example and between various ethnic minorities),
deep-seated differences between haves and have-nots, persists
blighting the life chances of less fortunate. Looking at earnings,
income, education, employment or wealth, a similar pattern emerges.
By the age of three, a poor child is outperformed in verbal ability
and behavior by a rich one. Much of the difference is explained by
ethnicity: unsurprisingly, poor children who did not speak English at
home know fewer words in what is their second or third language. A
child‘s ethnicity becomes less important as he grows: by the age of
16, but Chinese and Indian students are performing extremely very
well at school. But throughout his classroom career how well a child
does is dominated by how highly educated his parents are and how much
money they bring home. Politicians of all stripes talk about equality
of opportunity, arguing that it makes for a fairer and more mobile
society and a more prosperous one. The difficulty arises in putting
these notions into practice, through severe tax increases for the
middle-class and wealthy, or expanding government interventions.
of these can be inferred from the passage as one of the key solutions
to reduce the gap between various social groups?
groups to converse in English even at home so as to develop their
for the middle class and wealthy so that the gap between rich and
poor can be reduced
child’s ethnicity and background of parents at school so as to remove
bias from coming in
responsible for the poorer people, since they have been better at
generating wealth than the government
while studying social groups?
grow since implementing policies is difficult
becomes less important as he grows
but there is still a long way to go
passage, what is the meaning of the term ‘blighting’?
avid users of social-networking websites may be exhibitionist
teenagers, but when it comes to more grown-up use by business people,
such sites have a surprisingly long pedigree. LinkedIn, an online
network for professionals that signed up its ten-millionth user this
week, was launched in 2003, a few months before MySpace, the biggest
of the social sites. Consumer adoption of social networking has
grabbed most attention since then. But interest in the business uses
of the technology is rising. Many companies are attracted by the
marketing opportunities offered by community sites. But the results
can be painful. Pizza Hut has a profile on MySpace devoted to a
pizza-delivery driver called Ted, who helpfully lets friends in on
the chain’s latest promotional offers (―Dude, I just heard some
scoop from the Hut, ran one recent post). Wal-Mart started up and
rapidly closed down a much-derided teenage site called The Hub last
year. Reuters hopes to do better with its forthcoming site for those
in the financial-services industry. Social networking has proved to
be of greatest value to companies in recruitment. Unlike a simple
jobs board, social networks enable members to pass suitable vacancies
on to people they know, and to refer potential candidates back to the
recruiter. So employers reach not only active jobseekers but also a
much larger pool of passive candidates through referrals. LinkedIn
has over 350 corporate customers which pay up to $250,000 each to
advertise jobs to its expanding network. Having lots of people in a
network increases its value in a ―super-linear fashion, says Reid
Hoffman, LinkedIn’s founder. He says corporate use of his service is
now spreading beyond recruiters: hedge funds use it to identify and
contact experts, for example. Jobster, a Seattle-based
social-networking site, is entirely devoted to recruitment.
Jobseekers can post their own profiles and tag their skills; these
tags are then used to match candidates against jobs posted by
employers. Unlike on LinkedIn, companies can set up private networks
to ensure that the right kinds of people are alerted to openings and
that the data they post remain under their control. Information needs
to stay behind when a user leaves the company, argues Jason Goldberg,
Jobster’s founder. Where LinkedIn emphasises scale and Jobster
emphasises specialisation, Visible Path, a startup based in New York,
focuses on the strength of individual relationships. The firm
analyses email traffic, calendars and diary entries to identify the
strongest relationships that exist inside and outside a company. An
obvious application is to generate leads: a salesman can use the
service to identify who within his network has the closest links to a
prospect, and request an introduction. Such techniques are also
gathering momentum in ―knowledge management . IBM recently
unveiled a social-software platform called Lotus Connections, due out
in the next few weeks, that lets company employees post detailed
profiles of themselves, team up on projects and share bookmarks. One
manufacturer testing the software is using it to put inexperienced
members of its customer-services team in touch with the right
engineers. It can also be used to identify in-house experts. Software
firms will probably start bundling social features of this kind into
all sorts of business software. To work well in the business world,
social networking has to clear some big hurdles. Incentives to
participate in a network have to be symmetrical, for one thing. The
interests of MySpace members—and of jobseekers and employers—may
be aligned, but it is not clear why commission-hungry salespeople
would want to share their best leads with colleagues. Limiting the
size of the network can reduce its value for companies, yet
confidentiality is another obvious concern for companies that invite
outsiders into their online communities. ―Social networking sounds
great in theory, but the business benefits are still unproven, says
Paul Jackson of Forrester, a consultancy. But if who you know really
does matter more than what you know, it has obvious potential.
What is the author of the
passage most likely to agree to?
benefited corporate sector to a large extent.
not useful for corporate sector.
may benefit the corporate sector to some extent.
According to the author, how
does social networking help recruitment?
in a super-linear fashion.
larger pool of passive candidates.
teenagers are also on the network.
Which of the following is an
appropriate title for the passage?
3 : Ethics of Social Networking in Business
Which of the following
statements is Reid Hoffman most likely to agree to?
useful for recruiting.
has other uses apart from recruiting.
not impacted business much.
networking is for Hedge funds.
What meaning of avid could you
infer from the passage?
Unprincipled Option 3 : Unwanted 4
What is the most probable
context in which the author is talking about Pizza Hut?
not benefit it.
big success for it.
created problems for it. 4
: None of these
Why does the author call Lotus
Connections a social software platform?
allow employees to interact and cooperate with each other.
team can get in touch with the right engineers using it.
What are the hurdles that
social networking has to overcome in order to benefit the business
confidentiality. Option 2 : Misalignment of interests.
interests and confidentiality. Option
4 : None of these
an elderly woman waiting on the platform ahead of him to get onto the
metro. He wanted to be sure to get a seat to read his Economic Times.
As the train rolled out of the station, he lifted his head from the
newspaper and stared at the man directly across from him.
him. Rohit knew this man, knew him all too well.
the ruckus of speeding wheels against the winding
car filled Rohit’s ears. To this frenetic beat, Rohit
all the reasons this man, whose eyes he stared coldly
of his firm using an imperious manner with his
everyone knew he was the boss.
upbringing, he had become ostentatious. Flush with cash
made, he had purchased a yacht and a home in
how he liked to say he had them. Meanwhile,
were on the verge of being evicted from their rundown
this man was that he never even attempted to make amends for his evil
not know. He could try though.
stop. He gave the man one last hard look. “See you
himself. And he knew he would, because Rohit had been
the glass in the metro.
and therapy, but Rohit would one day notice this
at what a kinder person he had become.
antipathy come over Rohit?
himself and unable to stand looking at himself
him was his former boss who treated him badly
newspaper and not be disturbed, especially by someone he disliked d)
Because the guy sitting across him was financially better off than
statement makes most sense from what is said in the paragraph?
Rohit knows himself well
life d) Rohit is incapable of change
was the biggest reason (stated or implied) for Rohit disliking the
man in the metro?
extremely rude and domineering especially with his subordinates
had not made any effort to reform himself for the better
care of his parents who were on the verge of being evicted from their
for things or money and while people did not have a place to stay, he
had bought a flat which he did not even use
does it mean to have an imperious manner with underlings?
be stoic around them
not be affected by them e)To
be domineering towards them
remembers questions and answers
of the following is true about Christensen and Mead?
1 : They are in complete disagreement Option
2 : They are in partial agreement
3 : They are in complete agreement Option 4 : None of these
best describes the statement: “Build a worse mousetrap and the
world will beat a path to your door.” ?
1 : Factual Option 2 : Celebratory Option
3 : Satirical Option
4 : Cynical
of the statements is the author of the passage most likely to agree
1 : Internet is a successful instance of Christensen’s innovation
2 : Internet is an instance of Christensen’s model of innovation, but
3 : Internet is an instance of Mead’s type I innovation, but
4 : Internet is an successful instance of Mead’s type I innovation.
to the author, what is the problem companies had with the internet?
1 : It’s quality never improved. Option 2 : It helped the consumers.
3 : The companies could not make money with it.
4 : It was an instance of Mead’s Type II innovation.
does the author imply by the phrase thanks mainly to “The
Innovator’s Dilemma,” in the first paragraph?
1 : The author wants to thank Christenson for writing the book.
2 : The author is obliged to Christenson for writing the book.
: The author implies that the phrase “Build a worse…”
comes from Christenson’s book
4 : The author is being sarcastic towards Christenson’s book.
segment of society are initial users to Christensen’s “disruptive
technology” and Type One innovation of Mead?
: Economically high and low respectively 2
: Economically low and high respectively
: Both economically low 4 : Both economically high
does ‘giddy’ mean in context of it’s usage in the third paragraph of
1 : Those suffering of vertigo Option 2 : Unhealthy
3 : Light-hearted Option
4 : Nervous
does the statement of Schumpeter imply?
1 : One should make mail coaches instead of rail roads.
2 : One should make rail roads instead of mail coaches.
3 : Incremental changes cannot lead to an innovation
4 : Innovations are irreversible changes.